An increasing number of human studies demonstrate that radiation doses of less than 2 Gy can induce cataracts. As a consequence, new radiation dose limits have been incorporated into the current European basic safety standard (BSS). They must be implemented in all EU member states until February 2018.
A case study shows how radiation dose can be reduced during CT scans of the lumbar spine: The revision of standard protocols and special training for technologists to feed maximum dose limitations to the scanner result in remarkable decreases of radiation exposure without sacrificing quality.
A review shows how allergic reactions to iodinated contrast material in pregnant woman are treated optimally: Evaluation and treatment should initially start similar to a non-pregnant adult. However, important modifications need to be made to maintain the blood pressure in order to ensure placental perfusion.